What is the meaning of HCV IgG?

Question by usamabdul: What is the meaning of HCV IgG?

Best answer:

Answer by sanjuu
Hepatitis C
Definition

Hepatitis C is a form of liver inflammation that causes primarily a long-lasting (chronic) disease. Acute (newly developed) hepatitis C is rarely observed as the early disease is generally quite mild. Spread mainly by contact with infected blood, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes most cases of viral liver infection not due to the A and B hepatitis viruses. In fact, before other viral types were found, hepatitis C was referred to as “non-A, non-B hepatitis.” It is not a new infection, just newly diagnosable and has been widely present in the U.S. population for decades.

Description

HCV is a blood-borne virus that is and always was the major cause of “transfusion hepatitis,” which can develop in patients who are given blood or most blood products except for gamma-globulin. The existence of a third hepatitis virus (besides the A and B viruses) became clear in 1974, but HCV was first identified in 1989. Thereafter, tests were devised to detect the virus in blood units before transfusing them. As a result, since the early 1990s transfused blood is less commonly the cause of hepatitis C.

The hepatitis C form of hepatitis is generally mild in its early, acute stage, but it is much likelier than hepatitis B (85% as compared to 10%) to produce chronic liver disease. Therefore, more than two of every three persons who are infected by HCV may continue to have the virus in their blood and so become carriers, who can transmit the infection to others.

The most common way of transmitting hepatitis C is when blood containing the virus enters another person’s circulation through a break in the skin or the mucosa (inner lining) of the mouth or genitals. HCV also can be passed (although uncommonly) from an infected mother to the infant she is carrying. (The risk of infection from breast milk is very low.) Also, HCV can be rarely spread through sexual intercourse. Usually, however, the sexual contacts of chronic carriers of hepatitis C are not infected.

Those at increased risk of developing hepatitis C include:

healthcare workers who come in contact with infected blood from a cut or bruise, or from a device or instrument that has been infected (“contaminated”)

persons who inject illicit drugs into their veins and skin, especially if they share needles and syringes with other users

anyone who gets a tattoo or has his or her skin pierced with an infected needle

persons with hemophilia (who because they bleed very easily may require large amounts of blood and blood products over time)

patients with kidney disease who have periodic dialysis-a treatment that rids their blood of toxic substances-and often requires the patient to have blood transfusions

About one-fourth of patients with hepatitis C do not belong to any of these high-risk groups. Although blood transfusion is a much less common cause of HCV infection than in earlier years, cases still occur. Also, sexual transmission is possible, and may take place with either heterosexual or homosexual behavior.

Causes and symptoms

More than half of all patients who develop hepatitis C have no symptoms or signs of liver disease. Some, however, may have a minor illness with flu-like symptoms. Any form of hepatitis may keep the liver from eliminating certain colored (pigmented) substances as it normally does. These pigments collect in the skin, turning it yellow, and also may cause yellowing of the whites of the eyes. About one in four patients with hepatitis C will develop this yellowing of the skin called jaundice (or yellow jaundice). Some patients lose their appetite and frequently feel tired. Patients may also feel nauseous or even vomit.

In most patients, HCV can still be found in the blood six months after the start of acute infection, and these patients are considered to be carriers. If the virus persists for one year, it is very unlikely to disappear. About 20% of chronic carriers develop cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver when the virus damages or destroys large numbers of liver cells, which are then replaced by scar tissue. Cirrhosis may develop only after a long period of time (as long as 20 years) and often even more has passed. Most (four in five) patients will not develop cirrhosis and instead have a mild, chronic form of infection called chronic persistent hepatitis and when they die, will die with, not of, the infection.

Patients with chronic HCV infection are at risk of developing certain very serious complications:

Patients with hepatitis C who develop cirrhosis may go on to have liver cancer-called hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with liver cancer have an average life expectancy measured in months unless the tumor is totally removed.

Patients also are at risk of developing a combination of joint pain, weakness, and areas of bleeding into the skin. The kidneys and brain also may be affected. Perhaps 5% of patients with chronic HCV infection develop this condition, called cryoglobulinemia.

Patients with porphyria (metabolic disturbances characterized by extreme sensitivity to light) develop blisters in areas of their skin that are exposed to sunlight. The skin also may be easily bruised, and, in time, can become discolored.

Diagnosis

Hepatitis C should be suspected if a patient develops jaundice and reports recent contact with the blood of a person who may have been infected. There is a blood test to detect HCV IgG antibody, a substance that the body makes to combat HCV. Care is required, as the test often does not show positive for up to two to three months after infection. Also, the test only shows whether a person has ever been infected by HCV, not whether the virus is still present. A less available and more expensive test measuring HCV RNA (the viral gene) can be found in early infection before the antibody is measurable. Simpler blood tests can be done to show how much jaundice-causing pigment is in a patient’s blood, or to measure the levels of certain proteins made by the liver. High levels of these “liver enzymes” (called ALT and AST) indicate that the liver is inflamed. Rising levels could suggest that the infection is getting worse.

Treatment

Patients who fail to recover promptly may be advised to see a specialist in gastrointestinal disorders (which include liver disease) or infectious diseases. A balanced diet with little fat is best, and patients should limit their alcohol intake, or, better, avoid alcohol altogether. Any medication that can cause liver damage should be avoided. The amount of time in bed depends on how poorly a particular patient feels.

A natural body protein, interferon alpha, now can be made in large amounts by genetic engineering, and improves the outlook for many patients who have chronic hepatitis C. The protein can lessen the symptoms of infection and improve liver function. Not all patients respond, however, and others get less benefit the longer they take interferon. Fever and flu-like symptoms are frequent side effects of this treatment. Using a high dose for six months, nearly half of patients have responded positively. Half the patients who do respond well will relapse after the drug is stopped. A newer medication called ribavirin is now commonly used with interferon and, if tolerated, does increase response rates. A newer form of interferon, called pegylated interferon, is also being used for treatment. Because of the problems with treatment, many people have sought alternative medications such as milk thistle or certain Asian herbs.

When hepatitis destroys most or all of the liver, the only hope may be a liver transplant. Unfortunately the new liver usually becomes infected by HCV. On the other hand, total liver failure is less frequent than in patients with hepatitis B.

Prognosis

In roughly one-fifth of patients who develop hepatitis C, the acute infection will subside, and they will recover completely within four to eight weeks and have no later problems. Other patients face two risks: they themselves may develop chronic liver infection and possibly serious complications such as liver cancer, and, also, they will continue carrying the virus and may pass it on to others. The overall risk of developing cirrhosis, or liver scarring, is about 15% of all patients infected by HCV. Acute liver failure is less frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C than in those with other forms of hepatitis.

Prevention

No vaccine has yet been developed to prevent hepatitis C in persons exposed to the virus. In addition, there is no role of gamma-globulin in the prevention of the infection. There are, however, many ways in which infection may be avoided:

Those who inject drugs should never share needles, syringes, swabs, spoons, or anything else that comes in contact with bodily fluids. They should always use clean equipment.

Hands should be washed before and after contact with another person’s blood or if the skin is penetrated.

The sharing of personal items should be avoided, particularly those that can puncture the skin or inside of the mouth, such as razors, nail files and scissors, and even toothbrushes.

Condoms should be used for either vaginal or oral sex.

If a person does develop hepatitis C, its spread may be prevented by:

not donating blood

not sharing personal items with others

wiping up any spilled blood while using gloves, household bleach, and disposable paper towels

carefully covering any cut or wound with a bandaid or dressing

practicing safe sex, especially during the acute phase of the infection

Key Terms

Antibody
A substance formed in the body in response to a foreign body, such as a virus, which can attack and destroy the invading foreign body or virus.

Carrier
A person who, after recovering from a viral infection, continues to “carry” the virus in the blood and can pass it on to others who then may develop infection.

Contamination
Passage of an infectious organism, such as a virus, from an infected person to an object such as a needle, which then, when used, may pass infection to another person.

Hepatocellular carcinoma
A dangerous cancer of the liver that may develop in patients who have had hepatitis, sometimes as long as 20 or 30 years earlier.

Porphyria
Any of a group of disturbances of porphyrin metabolism characterized by excess pophyrins (various biologically active compounds with a distinct structure) in the urine and by extreme sensitivity to light.

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I have Hepatitis B, and I’m 14, and Female?

Question by XEternallyXDazzled: I have Hepatitis B, and I’m 14, and Female?
Okay , so I really don’t know what I’m asking for . But I’m 14 and I have Hepatitis B , I did NOT get it from being sexually active with another person, since I never have been that way with another male. I don’t know how I got it . I just found out when I was 12 ? And this is the first time I’m actually looking into this stuff .

What’s the worst that could happen ?

Can I ever be Sexually Active in the future ?

Thanks in advance . :)
Thank you for your answers .

Another detail was that my doctor told me that I was completely fine and it wasn’t that serious . But I still get shots every 6 months .

Best answer:

Answer by mynx2020
Hi, sorry to hear you have Hep B but it really doesnt have to be the end of the world. You need to know what stage of the disease you are at, if you are Hep B surface antigen positive that means you have a current infection and you could potentially pass it on to any partners (but i’m guessing since your 14 that isnt an issue right now?!). This stage could last many months or a year or two, but then you should become Hep B core antibody positive, which means you will not be infectious and will be immune to catching the virus again in the future, at this stage you are not infectious and this should last for the rest of your life. Less commonly you could be chronically infected and contagious but this really would be rare in someone of your age. You really should sit down wth your doctor and get all the answers you need, what stage of the disease you are at and what is your prognosis for the future. Good luck, I’m sure you will be fine!

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Is Hepatitis treatable or not? doctor says it is?

Question by meganxrenee07: Is Hepatitis treatable or not? doctor says it is?
I recently had elevated liver enzymes on two tests within a month of each other. I have taken alot of Tylenol growing up. I dont drink, or do any drugs. So, my doctor ordered a Hepatitis panel. I had a CBC 4 months ago, and my liver was fine. I also was tested for Hepatitis C, 3-4 months ago & it was negative.

So, I told my doctor I don’t see a point in taking the test, and dealing with embarrassment of getting the test (which it was) & she & her nurse told me Hepatitis is now treatable, that I won’t die.

But, I’ve read online horror stories.

Since when is it treatable & how could I have gotten it??

Best answer:

Answer by abijann
I want to explain about Hepatitis and about liver disease.

When the liver cells become damaged, the immune
system of the body will respond to this and cause
inflammation to develop inside the liver. This
inflammation (if the cause is not stopped and
it is not treated)….will cause the liver to
enlarge in size and take on a spongy texture.
Inflammation of the liver is known as “Hepatitis”.

Liver testing is separate from a Complete
blood count testing (CBC)…the doctor would
of either ordered a (CMP) Complete
metabolic panel or Liver Panel which is
a group of tests that would include looking
at your liver enzymes, liver functions tests.
He Did order a test to look for a liver virus,
Like Hepatitis A,B,or C. These virus enter
the body and go to the liver cells to use
them to replicate itself.

So as you can see: Hepatitis is totally
different from Hepatitis A,B, or C.

Please note, that (like you mentioned) the doctor
took more than one test and compared them.
This is done because no one blood testing is
ever 100% accurate. It is only when the testing
stay out of normal reference range (like yours
did) that it becomes a cause for concern.

You may have more blood testing done in a
short while…it depends on how high these test
results are. If the doctor believes you have
developed inflammation in the liver…he may
order an ultrasound or Ct scan to be done
to check the liver/biliary area.

If the inflammation is treated and the cause of
it developing is stopped, then Hepatitis can
reverse and the liver can heal.

However, if the inflammation stays in the
liver and the cause cannot be removed…it can
proceed to where the liver cells die off and
form scar tissue inside the liver. It is then
diagnosed as Fibrosis. As more liver
cells die off and scar tissue forms in the
liver; the scar tissue will start to reconstruct
the liver inside and prevent the flow of
blood. This is Cirrhosis of the liver and it is
irreversible and a progressive disease.

What the nurse told you was right.

I hope this has releaved some of your
worries. Be sure to tell the doctor of
all medications (including over the counter meds,
herbs, herbal teas, vitamins, minerals, supplement,
inhalers, etc) you are taking. Medication does
have a effect on the liver because the liver cells
break them down before they go to the rest of
the body. Try to avoid Tylenol, unless the doctor
tells you to use it. It is best now to only use
medication that the doctor approves of or
is prescribed by your doctors. To ask what
to take in advanced and how much is the best
thing to do.

Different things can cause liver cells damage:
alcohol consumption, medication toxification
auto immune disease, viral or parasite
infections, mushroom poisoning,
cardiac/vascular problems, hereditary or
metabolic disorder, cyst/growth/tumor/cancer,
gallbladder or biliary obstruction/malformation/infection,
fatty liver disease, and more.

Please can develop an enlarged liver and spleen if
the have mononucleosis. But rest and following the
doctors orders can easily cure this. This usually causes
the glands in the neck area to enlarge.

Best wishes
If you would like to learn more about your blood
tests and what they mean…here is a good site
to look at:

http://www.labtestsonline.org

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Hepatitis c ? ……………?

Question by Ruben: Hepatitis c ? ……………?
Me and my brother had sexual intercourse with a female who is know to have hepatitis c we didn’t know this and we where both unprotected is it possible to go to the clinic the next day to check… Or is there a waiting period for the virus to appear ….. The sexual intourcourse took place augest 28 2012

Best answer:

Answer by Bob
Get yourself and your brother to the hospital now, the ER. Please. You need meds immediately to take care of this. Otherwise, left untreated, you can get Hep C.

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I have Hepatitis C….is there a better tx than there was 5 yrs ago?

Question by ibiteaol: I have Hepatitis C….is there a better tx than there was 5 yrs ago?
My tx failed 5 yrs ago when you had to do shots 3x per week. I’m type 1A which I hear is the most common genotype but also the most difficult to treat. Any knowledge about this would be fantastic….please write in simple terms as I don’t get the in’s and out’s of medicines. THANKS A BUNCH!!!

Best answer:

Answer by quijibored
Yes, the new pegelated interferon and ribavirin combo treatment (available from Schering or Roche) have greatly increased the response rate from the older 3X week interferon only treatment regimen. If you are symptomatic or have a high viral load, you should see your hep Dr and ask about the new treatment regimens.

http://www.pegintron.com/peg/application

http://www.pegasys.com/?SOURCE=GOOG&KEYWORD=p

These links are for the new types of interferon. You also have to take pills along with the shots. Both interferon manufacturers have their own proprietary name for the ribavirin (generic drug name) pills but if you read these links you will learn about the full treatment regimen.

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Hepatitis B Symptoms in 6 months?

Question by steve: Hepatitis B Symptoms in 6 months?
Hello, I contracted Hepatitis B in Thailand 3 months ago. I have studied about this and I am fully aware that it takes up to 6 months to recover. I am concerned of how powerful this type of HBV might be though. When the jaundice, nausea, itching, weakness, and fever set in, I am certain that I would have died from this. A doctor here told me to be aware that the virus will attack the oxygen in my blood eventually and it did. My left arm went numb and my heart lost it’s “thump” so I went to ER late at night. I was fully aware that without medication of some kind, this disease would have progressed indefinitely. That night I took ONE PILL of Lamivudine and it killed the majority of the active virus in less than a day. After researching, I discovered that there were patients that went on the Lamivudine regiment unlike me. The HBV virus can adapt to Lamivudine over time. I did not want to lose any future opportunities so I only took the ONE PILL. An American doctor told me to take it daily or not take it at all. I have had no medication at all since. My question is pertaining to the cycle of the virus. So I had all of the symptoms, now I am having a constant pain in my liver region on a daily basis. I read many times about how 90% of adults spontaniously lose the active virus. Ok….So it magically disappears??? I want to see some detail from an expert about the progression of the virus and my immunity. I know already that I can get a DNA and viral load test but I shouldn’t have to(6 months will tell me that. no medicare here). I would like to be able to look at a graph chart that would also include the symptoms over a given period of time. By the way, I had 4 LFT’s and I am getting a better prognosis. My LFT’s are only slightly abnormal now but I am in pain and it seems to be progressing. The American doctor said I should’nt be in pain at all….Does anyone out there have a specialist opinion that is not vague??? There should be a chart dictating specific symptoms over the progression of time; not just a graph chart that measures time and recovery. I am aware that there are many different strains of the HBV virus, but there should be a symptoms map out there somewhere that i can’t seem to find. I could really use some hope. Thank you :) ( I am also concerned the pain could be gallbladder related due to my insane LFT that was in the 2,100 range…It was supposed to be 50 but almost normal now) Thanks again :)
Thank you for the answer :)

To answer your question, I do reside in Thailand somewhat permanently. I will add more info:

I was fully aware that without medication of some kind, this disease would have progressed indefinitely.” — This is not true unless the infection is chronic.—–What I meant by this was that my heart was failing. I was becoming shorter of breath each day. I became afraid to sleep because I might not wake up.

After taking the Lamivudine all symptoms disappeared within 3-5 days. Right quadrant pain progressed later.

There should be a chart dictating specific symptoms over the progression of time; not just a graph chart that measures time and recovery.” — This is unrealistic. Not everyone has all the same symptoms and at the same time, not everyone progresses in the same way.————————————————————-

More than 1/3 of the world’s population has been infected with hepatitis b. I agree that different people have di

Best answer:

Answer by TweetyBird
“A doctor here told me to be aware that the virus will attack the oxygen in my blood eventually and it did.” — HBV doesn’t attack blood oxygen. When the virus enters the blood, white blood cells release chemicals to destroy it. These chemicals have an effect on nearby cells including red blood cells. If red blood cells are destroyed, they will release their hemoglobin into the blood. Hemoglobin is an iron pigment-protein compound that binds to oxygen and carries it to all parts of the body. The virus is not attacking the oxygen.

“I was fully aware that without medication of some kind, this disease would have progressed indefinitely.” — This is not true unless the infection is chronic.

“That night I took ONE PILL of Lamivudine and it killed the majority of the active virus in less than a day.” — It did not. And if lamivudine is used for only 3 and 6 months, the levels of HBV rebound within 2 months after stopping the treatment.

“The HBV virus can adapt to Lamivudine over time.” — The major problem with lamivudine is that a resistant form of hepatitis B virus (referred to as a YMDD mutant) frequently develops in people who take lamivudine long term.

“I want to see some detail from an expert about the progression of the virus and my immunity. Does anyone out there have a specialist opinion that is not vague???” — You won’t find an Infectious Disease specialist or hepatologist here at Yahoo. That’s too much to hope for. But you can consult one or the other. Based on your self-report, lab trends and imaging an ID or hepatologist should be able to tell you at what stage your progress is and what to expect.

“There should be a chart dictating specific symptoms over the progression of time; not just a graph chart that measures time and recovery.” — This is unrealistic. Not everyone has all the same symptoms and at the same time, not everyone progresses in the same way.

“I am also concerned the pain could be gallbladder related due to my insane LFT that was in the 2,100 range.” — Then have your gallbladder checked thoroughly to rule out biliary tract disease or gallbladder involvement.

It’s unclear to me if you reside in Thailand or were traveling there. It’s also unknown to me if you received the proper vaccinations before going to Thailand. And where are you now? I noted you said “no Medicare here.”

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My son age is 29 years and found hepatitis c luckily at border stage that is 1.13 where cut out is 1.?

Question by s.bokhari: My son age is 29 years and found hepatitis c luckily at border stage that is 1.13 where cut out is 1.?
Please let me know that how can he get cured and by which medicines . Moreover is it still in cureable graph of disease.I am worried about him .Please guide me.

Best answer:

Answer by TAG
it is incurable sorry

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Q&A: I have been diagnosed with hepatitis c with a viral load of 20,000,000. Is that a high viral load?

Question by booboo: I have been diagnosed with hepatitis c with a viral load of 20,000,000. Is that a high viral load?

Best answer:

Answer by A E N
200,000 to 1,000,000 low

1,000,000 to 5,000,000 medium

5,000,000 to 25,000,000 high

above 25,000,000 very high

Your viral load is the amount of specific viruses that you have, in a given volume of your blood (usually 1 milliliter = 1 cubic centimeter). More precisely, it means that the amount of Hep C genetic material found in your blood corresponds to as many Hep C viruses as the given number says. Therefore the given number denotes “viral equivalents.”

There appears to be no significant correlation between HCV RNA levels and ALT values or histological activity in patients untreated by anti-viral therapies (Interferon). Viral load varies between infected individuals but is not a useful prognostic indicator nor does it measure the severity of virus-induced liver disease.

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